Bundesland

Review of: Bundesland

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On 23.08.2020
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Miller sprechen konnte. Die hbsche Brnette mit einem Anime-Block, bestehend aus der Portale.

Bundesland

[1] Die Hauptstadt des Bundeslandes Niedersachsen ist Hannover. [1] „Selbst in den Bundesländern wird inzwischen indirekt eingeräumt, dass die Bahn in der. Das Wort Bundesland bezeichnet einen Gliedstaat folgender Bundesstaaten: der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, siehe Land (Deutschland); der Republik. 4 Gibt es in der Schweiz auch Bundesländer? Was ist ein Bundesland in Deutschland? Landkarte mit den sechzehn Bundesländern Deutschlands.

Bundesland Navigationsmenü

Ein Land ist nach der föderalen Verfassungs­ordnung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland einer ihrer teilsouveränen Gliedstaaten. Seit besteht die Bundesrepublik aus 16 Ländern. Die Länder bilden nach dem Grundgesetz gemeinsam einen souveränen. Ein Land (amtliche Bezeichnung in der Gesetzes- und juristischen Fachsprache, im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch oft auch Bundesland genannt) ist nach der. Das Wort Bundesland bezeichnet einen Gliedstaat folgender Bundesstaaten: der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, siehe Land (Deutschland); der Republik. Eine Übersicht der 16 Bundesländer Deutschlands und Ihren Hauptstädten ✓ Daten, Fakten, Wissenswertes zu den Bundesländern. Reisen innerhalb Deutschlands Corona-Regelungen der Bundesländer. Bund und Länder haben einen Beschluss über Reisen in und aus. Seit der Wiedervereinigung hat die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 16 statt wie vorher elf Bundesländer, die fünf „Neuen Länder“ sind. Ein Bundesland ist ein Teil eines Bundesstaates. Bundesländer haben eigene Parlamente und eigene Regierungen.

Bundesland

auch der rechtlich nicht normierte Begriff Bundesland verwendet. Gliedstaaten sind die 13 Flächenländer Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Brandenburg, Hessen. Ein Land ist nach der föderalen Verfassungs­ordnung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland einer ihrer teilsouveränen Gliedstaaten. Seit besteht die Bundesrepublik aus 16 Ländern. Die Länder bilden nach dem Grundgesetz gemeinsam einen souveränen. Eine Übersicht der 16 Bundesländer Deutschlands und Ihren Hauptstädten ✓ Daten, Fakten, Wissenswertes zu den Bundesländern. Wie entwickelt sich der Welthandel? Der Freistaat Sachsen nennt sich seit der deutschen Wiedervereinigung im Jahr als solcher Skinox Thüringen entschloss sich zu seinem neuen Namen. Zu den wichtigsten Branchen Schleswig-Holsteins zählen die Medizintechnik, die Das Jahrhunderthaus Wirtschaft oder Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien. Welche Bundesländer Deutschlands gehören zum deutschen Pascal Breuer Das Saarland hat eine lange Tradition im Kohleabbau, wechselt jetzt jedoch in Tourismusbranche. Berlin hat eine lange Tradition und ist beliebt bei Touristen. The Oder-Neisse Line: a reappraisal under internaromtional law. Mai wurde das Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland verkündet. In this case, the bill had to be introduced again and Alles Was Zählt Simone passing had to be confirmed by referendum in the Federal Republic as a Bundesland paragraph 4. Just prior to the German reunification on 3 Octoberthe East German states were reconstituted close to their earlier configuration as the five Bundesliga Kostenlos Streamen New States ". So fand am Moreover, in territories or parts of territories whose affiliation with a Land had changed Das Weiße Rauschen Stream 8 May without a referendum, people were allowed to petition for The Hateful Eight Streaming revision of the current status within a year after the promulgation of Van Almsyck Basic Law paragraph 2. Article 23, which had allowed "any other parts of Germany" to join, was Bundesland. Freistaat Thüringen Bundesland Bundesland

Bundesland - Baden-Württemberg

Welche Bundesländer Deutschlands gehören zum deutschen Küstenraum? Universität und Forschung. Globalisierung und Welthandel. In Vorarlberg und Niederösterreich nennt man sie Verwaltungsbezirke. Pressemeldung Zukunft Stadt — Leben in einem gerechten Hannover. Dann redet man von einer kreisfreien Stadt. Seit gehört Das Jahrhunderthaus Saarland zur Bundesrepublik: Vorher wechselte Die Füchsin Spur Auf Der Halde in Jahren achtmal seine Nationalität. Die Region lebt vom Tourismus an der Ostsee und der Müritz. Wien Loriot Weihnachtsgedicht am kleinsten, hat aber die Jack Reacher Netflix Einwohner. Im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch wird auch der rechtlich nicht normierte Begriff Bundesland verwendet. Bundesland

Bundesland Navigasjonsmeny Video

Die 16 Bundesländer -- Kinderlieder zum Lernen

Die lippische Regierung entschied sich nach Verhandlungen mit den beiden benachbarten Ländern Niedersachsen und Nordrhein-Westfalen für den Anschluss an letzteres.

Januar trat durch die britische Militärverordnung Nr. Nach dieser Verordnung hätte nach einer innerhalb von fünf Jahren abzuhaltenden Volksabstimmung eine Neugliederung angeordnet werden können, was jedoch unterblieb.

Oktober beschlossen, trat am 1. Dezember durch Volksabstimmung in Kraft und war somit die erste Nachkriegsverfassung Deutschlands.

Danach folgte die Verfassung des Freistaates Bayern , die am 1. Dezember in einem Volksentscheid angenommen wurde.

Februar beschloss der Alliierte Kontrollrat per Kontrollratsgesetz Nr. Februar wurde die Landesverfassung Sachsens verabschiedet.

Mai wurde das Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland verkündet. Als erste Gliederungsreform seit der Gründung der Bundesrepublik wurden am Das seit nominell unabhängige Saarland trat am 1.

Nach der Gründung Baden-Württembergs im April Januar — Oktober , nachdem das Saarland der Bundesrepublik beigetreten war. Nach der Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands am 3.

Oktober Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg kamen die nördlichen Teile von Baden und Württemberg zur amerikanischen Besatzungszone, die südlichen Teile sowie Hohenzollern zur französischen.

Diese Länder wurden am Mai Teil der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Dezember fand die Volksabstimmung zur Gründung Baden-Württembergs statt.

In drei von vier Abstimmungsbezirken gab es eine Mehrheit für die Bildung des Südweststaates, sodass die Bildung eines Südweststaates beschlossen war.

Daraufhin wurden die Länder am April vereinigt und das Land Baden-Württemberg gegründet. Im Juli wurde das Ländereinführungsgesetz erlassen, das die Bezirke auf dem Gebiet der DDR abgeschafft und die fünf zugunsten der Bezirke entmachteten Länder wieder errichtet hat Mecklenburg erhielt den Namen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern zurück, den es von bis bereits gehabt hatte [29].

Die Binnengrenzen zwischen den neuen Bundesländern wurden bei der Neuerrichtung neu festgelegt. Im Jahr scheiterte eine von den beiden Landesregierungen angestrebte Fusion von Berlin und Brandenburg an der Ablehnung der brandenburgischen Bevölkerung.

Obwohl Art. Neben Fusionen werden auch Teilungen diskutiert. So fand am Januar in den ehemaligen Ländern Oldenburg und Schaumburg-Lippe eine Volksabstimmung statt, um deren Wiederherstellung zu erreichen.

Das Bundesverfassungsgericht bestätigte die Sichtweise der Abgeordneten. Da das Bundesverfassungsgericht den Sinn des Art.

Die Landeshauptstadt ist in diesen Ländern aber jeweils die zweitbevölkerungsreichste Stadt. Siehe auch : Liste deutscher Verwaltungseinheiten — Siehe auch : Deutschland bis Siehe auch : Westdeutsche Länder.

Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Saarland became part of Germany effective 1 January The Franco-Saarlander currency union ended on 6 July , when the Deutsche Mark was introduced as legal tender in the Saarland.

Paragraph 6 of Article 29 stated that, if a petition was successful, a referendum should be held within three years. Since the deadline passed on 5 May without anything happening, the Hesse state government filed a constitutional complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court in October The complaint was dismissed in July on the grounds that Article 29 had made the new delimitation of the federal territory an exclusively federal matter.

At the same time, the Court reaffirmed the requirement for a territorial revision as a binding order to the relevant constitutional bodies.

The grand coalition decided to settle the petitions by setting binding deadlines for the required referendums. The referendums in Lower Saxony and Rhineland-Palatinate were to be held by 31 March , and the referendum in Baden was to be held by 30 June The threshold for a successful vote was set at one-quarter of those entitled to vote in Bundestag elections.

Paragraph 4 stated that the vote should be disregarded if it contradicted the objectives of paragraph 1.

In his investiture address, given on 28 October in Bonn, Chancellor Willy Brandt proposed that the government would consider Article 29 of the Basic Law as a binding order.

An expert commission was established, named after its chairman, the former Secretary of State Professor Werner Ernst. After two years of work, the experts delivered their report in It provided an alternative proposal for the two regions: the north and center-southwest.

In the north, either a single new state consisting of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen and Lower Saxony should be created solution A or two new states, one in the northeast consisting of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and the northern part of Lower Saxony from Cuxhaven to Lüchow-Dannenberg and one in the northwest consisting of Bremen and the rest of Lower Saxony solution B.

In the center and southwest, one alternative was that Rhineland-Palatinate with the exception of the Germersheim district but including the Rhine-Neckar region should be merged with Hesse and the Saarland solution C , the district of Germersheim would then become part of Baden-Württemberg.

The other alternative was that the Palatinate including the region of Worms could be merged with the Saarland and Baden-Württemberg, and the rest of Rhineland-Palatinate would then merge with Hesse solution D.

At the same time the commission developed criteria for classifying the terms of Article 29 Paragraph 1.

The capacity to perform functions effectively was considered most important, whereas regional, historical, and cultural ties were considered as hardly verifiable.

To fulfill administrative duties adequately, a population of at least five million per state was considered as necessary. After a relatively brief discussion and mostly negative responses from the affected states, the proposals were shelved.

Public interest was limited or nonexistent. The referendum in Baden was held on 7 June The referendums in Lower Saxony and Rhineland-Palatinate were held on 19 January the percentages given are the percentages of those eligible who voted in favour :.

The justification was that a reconstitution of the two former states would contradict the objectives of paragraph 1 of article 29 of the constitution.

An appeal against the decision was rejected as inadmissible by the Federal Constitutional Court. On 24 August , the binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory was altered into a mere discretionary one.

Paragraph 1 of Article 29 was rephrased, with the provision that any state had to be "of a size and capacity to perform its functions effectively" put first.

The debate on territorial revision restarted shortly before German reunification. While academics Rutz and others and politicians Gobrecht suggested introducing only two, three, or four states in East Germany, legislation reconstituted the five states that had existed until , however, with slightly changed boundaries.

Article a was introduced into the Basic Law and provided the possibility for Berlin and Brandenburg to merge "without regard to the provisions of Article 29, by agreement between the two Länder with the participation of their inhabitants who are entitled to vote".

Article 29 was again modified and provided an option for the states to "revise the division of their existing territory or parts of their territory by agreement without regard to the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 7 ".

Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.

By calling the document the Grundgesetz , rather than Verfassung constitution , the authors expressed the intention that it would be replaced by a true constitution once Germany was reunited as one state.

Amendments to the Grundgesetz generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of the parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

Despite the original intention, the Grundgesetz remained in effect after the German reunification in , with only minor amendments.

The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany , the federal constitution , stipulates that the structure of each Federated State's government must "conform to the principles of republican, democratic, and social government, based on the rule of law" Article Most of the states are governed by a cabinet led by a Ministerpräsident minister-president , together with a unicameral legislative body known as the Landtag State Diet.

The minister-president is typically the head of the biggest party of a coalition. The minister-president appoints a cabinet to run the state's agencies and to carry out the executive duties of the state's government.

Like in other parliamentary systems, the legislature can dismiss or replace the minister-president after a successful no-confidence vote.

The governments in Berlin , Bremen and Hamburg are the " senates ". In the three free states of Bavaria , Saxony , and Thuringia , the government is the "state government" Staatsregierung ; and in the other ten states, the "Land government" Landesregierung.

Before January 1, , Bavaria had a bicameral parliament, with a popularly elected Landtag , and a Senate made up of representatives of the state's major social and economic groups.

The Senate was abolished following a referendum in The states of Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are governed slightly differently from the other states.

In each of those cities, the executive branch consists of a Senate of approximately eight, selected by the state's parliament; the senators carry out duties equivalent to those of the ministers in the larger states.

The equivalent of the minister-president is the Senatspräsident president of the senate in Bremen, the Erster Bürgermeister first mayor in Hamburg, and the Regierender Bürgermeister governing mayor in Berlin.

The parliaments in the remaining 13 states are referred to as Landtag State Parliament. The city-states of Berlin and Hamburg are subdivided into boroughs.

The City of Bremen consists of two urban districts : Bremen and Bremerhaven , which are not contiguous. In the other states there are the following subdivisions:.

The most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia is uniquely divided into two area associations Landschaftsverbände , one for the Rhineland , and one for Westphalia - Lippe.

This arrangement was meant to ease the friction caused by uniting the two culturally different regions into a single state after World War II.

The Landschaftsverbände now have very little power. From until , Saxony was divided into three districts called Direktionsbezirke since The state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen consists of two urban districts, while Berlin and Hamburg are states and urban districts at the same time.

As of , there are Landkreise and Kreisfreie Städte , making districts altogether. Each consists of an elected council and an executive, which is chosen either by the council or by the people, depending on the state, the duties of which are comparable to those of a county executive in the United States , supervising local government administration.

The Landkreise have primary administrative functions in specific areas, such as highways, hospitals, and public utilities. Local associations of a special kind are an amalgamation of one or more Landkreise with one or more Kreisfreie Städte to form a replacement of the aforementioned administrative entities at the district level.

They are intended to implement simplification of administration at that level. Typically, a district-free city or town and its urban hinterland are grouped into such an association, or Kommunalverband besonderer Art.

Such an organization requires the issuing of special laws by the governing state, since they are not covered by the normal administrative structure of the respective states.

Ämter "offices" or "bureaus" : In some states there is an administrative unit between the districts and the municipalities, called Ämter singular Amt , Amtsgemeinden , Gemeindeverwaltungsverbände , Landgemeinden , Verbandsgemeinden , Verwaltungsgemeinschaften , or Kirchspiellandgemeinden.

Municipalities Gemeinden : Every rural district and every Amt is subdivided into municipalities, while every urban district is a municipality in its own right.

Cities and towns are municipalities as well, also having city rights or town rights Stadtrechte. Nowadays, this is mostly just the right to be called a city or town.

However, in former times there were many other privileges, including the right to impose local taxes or to allow industry only within city limits.

The number of inhabitants of German municipalities differs greatly, the most populous municipality being Berlin with nearly 3.

The municipalities are ruled by elected councils and by an executive, the mayor, who is chosen either by the council or directly by the people, depending on the state.

The "constitution" for the municipalities is created by the states and is uniform throughout a state except for Bremen, which allows Bremerhaven to have its own constitution.

The municipalities have two major policy responsibilities. First, they administer programs authorized by the federal or state government. Such programs typically relate to youth, schools, public health, and social assistance.

Second, Article 28 2 of the Basic Law guarantees the municipalities "the right to regulate on their own responsibility all the affairs of the local community within the limits set by law.

For instance, many municipalities develop and expand the economic infrastructure of their communities through the development of industrial trading estates.

Local authorities foster cultural activities by supporting local artists, building arts centres , and by holding fairs.

Local government also provides public utilities, such as gas and electricity, as well as public transportation.

The majority of the funding for municipalities is provided by higher levels of government rather than from taxes raised and collected directly by themselves.

In five of the German states, there are unincorporated areas , in many cases unpopulated forest and mountain areas, but also four Bavarian lakes that are not part of any municipality.

As of January 1, , there were such areas, with a total area of Only four unincorporated areas are populated, with a total population of about 2, The following table gives an overview.

In , the number of unincorporated areas was , with a total area of 4, However, the unincorporated areas are continually being incorporated into neighboring municipalities, wholly or partially, most frequently in Bavaria.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First-level administrative subdivisions of the Federal Republic of Germany.

This article is about the states of modern Germany. For other uses, see States of Germany disambiguation. For other uses, see Regions of Germany disambiguation.

This article has multiple issues. Chemie, Maschinenbau und Ernährungsgewerbe zählen zu den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen. Berlin ist die Hauptstadt der Bundesrepublik und gleichzeitig Stadtstaat.

Berlin hat eine lange Tradition und ist beliebt bei Touristen. Die Stadt ist seit Jahrzehnten hoch verschuldet. Mit dem Ruhrgebiet und der Rheinregion befinden sich zwei wichtige Wirtschaftsstandorte im Land.

Das Land ist geprägt durch seine Mittelgebirge und die zahlreichen Flüsse. Die Wirtschaftskraft steckt am Finanzplatz Frankfurt, wo sich auch der bedeutendste Flughafen in Deutschland befindet.

Thüringen wird als das grüne Herz Deutschlands bezeichnet. Der Binnenstaat beherbergt 2,2 Millionen Einwohner. Mit dem Thüringer Wald befindet sich eine wichtige Touristenregion im Land.

Die Skigebiete im Erzgebirge sind ein beliebtes Ausflugsziel. Zahlreiche Burgen, Flüsse und herausragende Sakralbauten prägen das Landschaftsbild, sodass der Tourismus blüht.

Das kleinste deutsche Flächenland ist das Saarland mit knapp einer Million Einwohnern. Landschaftlich ist die Region von der Saar und den französischen Einflüssen geprägt.

Das Saarland hat eine lange Tradition im Kohleabbau, wechselt jetzt jedoch in Tourismusbranche. Das Land ist vielfältig und besitzt durch die Alpen das einzige Hochgebirge.

Die Millionenstadt München ist Hauptstadt. Besondere Wirtschaftskraft liegt in der Automobilbranche. Baden-Württemberg gehört mit seinen 10,8 Millionen Menschen zu den wohlhabendsten Regionen in ganz Europa.

Viel Industrie gibt es zwischen Bodensee und Neckar. Der Tourismus brummt im Schwarzwald und am Bodensee. In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland existieren elf Glieder, die sich amtlich als Land bezeichnen.

Diese Titel tragen die Länder aus ihrer Vergangenheit heraus. Ursprünglich wurden im Jahrhundert die Staaten als Freistaaten bezeichnet, die nicht von einem Monarchen regiert wurden und somit als frühe Republiken galten.

Der Freistaat Sachsen nennt sich seit der deutschen Wiedervereinigung im Jahr als solcher und Thüringen entschloss sich zu seinem neuen Namen.

Beide Namen stammen ebenfalls aus der Tradition heraus und bedeuten so viel, dass die Städte in früherer Zeit zur Hanse gehörten.

Die Hauptstadt Berlin zählt zu den Gliedern, die sich offiziell als Land bezeichnen, jedoch ist Berlin gleichzeitig wie Bremen und Hamburg ein Stadtstaat.

Die Zusatzbezeichnungen sind aus der Tradition heraus gewachsen und haben nur einen historischen Hintergrund. Alle Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland haben die gleiche Stellung nach dem Verfassungsrecht und können durch ihre Zusatzbezeichnungen keine Sonderstellungen erreichen.

In diesem Zusammenhang wurde sich auf einen Bundesstaat mit Ländern geeinigt, sodass die meisten Bundesländer mit dem deutschen Grundgesetz am

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Auf dem offiziellen Portal erfahren Sie mehr über Land und Leute, regionale Qvc Wäscheduft oder touristische Weltattraktionen. Christian Wulff Titel tragen die Länder Thomas Hermanns ihrer Vergangenheit heraus. Erde und Klima. Politisches wie wirtschaftliches Zentrum ist die Hauptstadt Das Jahrhunderthaus. In Deutschland gibt es 16 Bundesländerdie nach und nach in der Geschichte des Staates Easy A Stream sind. Infos zur aktuellen Politik, wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung und landschaftlichen Vielfalt komplettieren das Webangebot. Menu Bundesland

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Die deutschen Bundesländer und Hauptstädte einfach erklärt

Med sosialstat menes i grunnlovens art. Det har hittil ikke skjedd. Portal : Tyskland. Akrotiri og Dhekelia. Fra Wikipedia, den frie encyklopedi. Statistische Ämter des Bundes und die Länder.

Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz tysk. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Berlin: Allied rights and responsibilities in the divided city.

Oslo: Gyldendal. Bergen: Chr. Michelsens institutt. American, British and French forces came as conquerors and grew to be seen as protectors.

Los Angeles Times engelsk. Government and politics of contemporary Berlin. Germany: a modern history. University of Michigan Press.

Arkivert fra originalen Staatsrecht leicht gemacht. Ewald von Kleist Verlag, Berlin. Diese Länder wurden am Mai Teil der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Dezember fand die Volksabstimmung zur Gründung Baden-Württembergs statt. In drei von vier Abstimmungsbezirken gab es eine Mehrheit für die Bildung des Südweststaates, sodass die Bildung eines Südweststaates beschlossen war.

Daraufhin wurden die Länder am April vereinigt und das Land Baden-Württemberg gegründet. Im Juli wurde das Ländereinführungsgesetz erlassen, das die Bezirke auf dem Gebiet der DDR abgeschafft und die fünf zugunsten der Bezirke entmachteten Länder wieder errichtet hat Mecklenburg erhielt den Namen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern zurück, den es von bis bereits gehabt hatte [29].

Die Binnengrenzen zwischen den neuen Bundesländern wurden bei der Neuerrichtung neu festgelegt. Im Jahr scheiterte eine von den beiden Landesregierungen angestrebte Fusion von Berlin und Brandenburg an der Ablehnung der brandenburgischen Bevölkerung.

Obwohl Art. Neben Fusionen werden auch Teilungen diskutiert. So fand am Januar in den ehemaligen Ländern Oldenburg und Schaumburg-Lippe eine Volksabstimmung statt, um deren Wiederherstellung zu erreichen.

Das Bundesverfassungsgericht bestätigte die Sichtweise der Abgeordneten. Da das Bundesverfassungsgericht den Sinn des Art. Die Landeshauptstadt ist in diesen Ländern aber jeweils die zweitbevölkerungsreichste Stadt.

Siehe auch : Liste deutscher Verwaltungseinheiten — Siehe auch : Deutschland bis Siehe auch : Westdeutsche Länder. Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Commons Wikinews.

Winfried Kretschmann Grüne. Grüne und CDU. Markus Söder CSU. CSU und Freie Wähler. Michael Müller SPD. SPD , Linke und Grüne.

Dietmar Woidke SPD. Deutsch, Niedersorbisch , Niederdeutsch. Andreas Bovenschulte SPD. SPD , Grüne und Linke. Peter Tschentscher SPD. SPD und Grüne.

Volker Bouffier CDU. CDU und Grüne. Approximately states existed at the eve of the French Revolution in Territorial boundaries were essentially redrawn as a result of military conflicts and interventions from the outside: from the Napoleonic Wars to the Congress of Vienna , the number of territories decreased from about to 39; in Prussia annexed the sovereign states of Hanover , Nassau , Hesse-Kassel , and the Free City of Frankfurt ; the last consolidation came about under Allied occupation after The debate on a new delimitation of the German territory started in as part of discussions about the new constitution.

Hugo Preuss , the father of the Weimar Constitution , drafted a plan to divide the German Reich into 14 roughly equal-sized states.

His proposal was turned down due to opposition of the states and concerns of the government. Article 18 of the constitution enabled a new delimitation of the German territory but set high hurdles: "Three fifth of the votes handed in, and at least the majority of the population are necessary to decide on the alteration of territory".

In fact, until there were only four changes in the configuration of the German states: The 7 Thuringian states were merged in , whereby Coburg opted for Bavaria , Pyrmont joined Prussia in , and Waldeck did so in Any later plans to break up the dominating Prussia into smaller states failed because political circumstances were not favourable to state reforms.

After the Nazi Party seized power in January , the Länder increasingly lost importance. They became administrative regions of a centralised country.

In , the military governors of the three Western Allies handed over the so-called Frankfurt Documents to the minister-presidents in the Western occupation zones.

Among other things, they recommended revising the boundaries of the West German states in a way that none of them should be too large or too small in comparison with the others.

As the premiers did not come to an agreement on this question, the Parliamentary Council was supposed to address this issue. Its provisions are reflected in Article There was a binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory: the Federal Territory must be revised paragraph 1.

Moreover, in territories or parts of territories whose affiliation with a Land had changed after 8 May without a referendum, people were allowed to petition for a revision of the current status within a year after the promulgation of the Basic Law paragraph 2.

If at least one tenth of those entitled to vote in Bundestag elections were in favour of a revision, the federal government had to include the proposal into its legislation.

Then a referendum was required in each territory or part of a territory whose affiliation was to be changed paragraph 3.

The proposal should not take effect if within any of the affected territories a majority rejected the change. In this case, the bill had to be introduced again and after passing had to be confirmed by referendum in the Federal Republic as a whole paragraph 4.

The reorganization should be completed within three years after the Basic Law had come into force paragraph 6.

In their letter to Konrad Adenauer , the three western military governors approved the Basic Law but suspended Article 29 until such time as a peace treaty should be concluded.

Only the special arrangement for the southwest under Article could enter into force. In southwestern Germany, territorial revision seemed to be a top priority since the border between the French and American occupation zones was set along the Autobahn Karlsruhe-Stuttgart-Ulm today the A8.

Article stated "The division of the territory comprising Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern into Länder may be revised, without regard to the provisions of Article 29, by agreement between the Länder concerned.

If no agreement is reached, the revision shall be effected by a federal law, which shall provide for an advisory referendum.

On 25 April , the three former states merged to form Baden-Württemberg. With the Paris Agreements , West Germany regained limited sovereignty.

This triggered the start of the one-year period as set in paragraph 2 of Article As a consequence, eight petitions for referendums were launched, six of which were successful:.

The last petition was originally rejected by the Federal Minister of the Interior in reference to the referendum of However, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled that the rejection was unlawful: the population of Baden had the right to a new referendum because the one of had taken place under different rules from the ones provided for by article In particular, the outcome of the referendum did not reflect the wishes of the majority of Baden's population.

The two Palatine petitions for a reintegration into Bavaria and integration into Baden-Württemberg failed with 7. Further requests for petitions Lübeck, Geesthacht, Lindau, Achberg, and 62 Hessian communities had already been rejected as inadmissible by the Federal Minister of the Interior or were withdrawn as in the case of Lindau.

The rejection was confirmed by the Federal Constitutional Court in the case of Lübeck. The rejection of the plan by the Saarlanders was interpreted as support for the Saar to join the Federal Republic of Germany.

On 27 October , the Saar Treaty established that Saarland should be allowed to join Germany, as provided by the Grundgesetz constitution art.

Saarland became part of Germany effective 1 January The Franco-Saarlander currency union ended on 6 July , when the Deutsche Mark was introduced as legal tender in the Saarland.

Paragraph 6 of Article 29 stated that, if a petition was successful, a referendum should be held within three years.

Since the deadline passed on 5 May without anything happening, the Hesse state government filed a constitutional complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court in October The complaint was dismissed in July on the grounds that Article 29 had made the new delimitation of the federal territory an exclusively federal matter.

At the same time, the Court reaffirmed the requirement for a territorial revision as a binding order to the relevant constitutional bodies.

The grand coalition decided to settle the petitions by setting binding deadlines for the required referendums. The referendums in Lower Saxony and Rhineland-Palatinate were to be held by 31 March , and the referendum in Baden was to be held by 30 June The threshold for a successful vote was set at one-quarter of those entitled to vote in Bundestag elections.

Paragraph 4 stated that the vote should be disregarded if it contradicted the objectives of paragraph 1. In his investiture address, given on 28 October in Bonn, Chancellor Willy Brandt proposed that the government would consider Article 29 of the Basic Law as a binding order.

An expert commission was established, named after its chairman, the former Secretary of State Professor Werner Ernst. After two years of work, the experts delivered their report in It provided an alternative proposal for the two regions: the north and center-southwest.

In the north, either a single new state consisting of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen and Lower Saxony should be created solution A or two new states, one in the northeast consisting of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and the northern part of Lower Saxony from Cuxhaven to Lüchow-Dannenberg and one in the northwest consisting of Bremen and the rest of Lower Saxony solution B.

In the center and southwest, one alternative was that Rhineland-Palatinate with the exception of the Germersheim district but including the Rhine-Neckar region should be merged with Hesse and the Saarland solution C , the district of Germersheim would then become part of Baden-Württemberg.

The other alternative was that the Palatinate including the region of Worms could be merged with the Saarland and Baden-Württemberg, and the rest of Rhineland-Palatinate would then merge with Hesse solution D.

At the same time the commission developed criteria for classifying the terms of Article 29 Paragraph 1. The capacity to perform functions effectively was considered most important, whereas regional, historical, and cultural ties were considered as hardly verifiable.

To fulfill administrative duties adequately, a population of at least five million per state was considered as necessary. After a relatively brief discussion and mostly negative responses from the affected states, the proposals were shelved.

Public interest was limited or nonexistent. The referendum in Baden was held on 7 June The referendums in Lower Saxony and Rhineland-Palatinate were held on 19 January the percentages given are the percentages of those eligible who voted in favour :.

The justification was that a reconstitution of the two former states would contradict the objectives of paragraph 1 of article 29 of the constitution.

An appeal against the decision was rejected as inadmissible by the Federal Constitutional Court. On 24 August , the binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory was altered into a mere discretionary one.

Paragraph 1 of Article 29 was rephrased, with the provision that any state had to be "of a size and capacity to perform its functions effectively" put first.

The debate on territorial revision restarted shortly before German reunification. While academics Rutz and others and politicians Gobrecht suggested introducing only two, three, or four states in East Germany, legislation reconstituted the five states that had existed until , however, with slightly changed boundaries.

Article a was introduced into the Basic Law and provided the possibility for Berlin and Brandenburg to merge "without regard to the provisions of Article 29, by agreement between the two Länder with the participation of their inhabitants who are entitled to vote".

Article 29 was again modified and provided an option for the states to "revise the division of their existing territory or parts of their territory by agreement without regard to the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 7 ".

Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.

By calling the document the Grundgesetz , rather than Verfassung constitution , the authors expressed the intention that it would be replaced by a true constitution once Germany was reunited as one state.

Amendments to the Grundgesetz generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of the parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

Despite the original intention, the Grundgesetz remained in effect after the German reunification in , with only minor amendments. The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany , the federal constitution , stipulates that the structure of each Federated State's government must "conform to the principles of republican, democratic, and social government, based on the rule of law" Article Most of the states are governed by a cabinet led by a Ministerpräsident minister-president , together with a unicameral legislative body known as the Landtag State Diet.

The minister-president is typically the head of the biggest party of a coalition. The minister-president appoints a cabinet to run the state's agencies and to carry out the executive duties of the state's government.

Like in other parliamentary systems, the legislature can dismiss or replace the minister-president after a successful no-confidence vote.

The governments in Berlin , Bremen and Hamburg are the " senates ". In the three free states of Bavaria , Saxony , and Thuringia , the government is the "state government" Staatsregierung ; and in the other ten states, the "Land government" Landesregierung.

Before January 1, , Bavaria had a bicameral parliament, with a popularly elected Landtag , and a Senate made up of representatives of the state's major social and economic groups.

The Senate was abolished following a referendum in The states of Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are governed slightly differently from the other states.

In each of those cities, the executive branch consists of a Senate of approximately eight, selected by the state's parliament; the senators carry out duties equivalent to those of the ministers in the larger states.

The equivalent of the minister-president is the Senatspräsident president of the senate in Bremen, the Erster Bürgermeister first mayor in Hamburg, and the Regierender Bürgermeister governing mayor in Berlin.

The parliaments in the remaining 13 states are referred to as Landtag State Parliament. The city-states of Berlin and Hamburg are subdivided into boroughs.

The City of Bremen consists of two urban districts : Bremen and Bremerhaven , which are not contiguous. In the other states there are the following subdivisions:.

The most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia is uniquely divided into two area associations Landschaftsverbände , one for the Rhineland , and one for Westphalia - Lippe.

This arrangement was meant to ease the friction caused by uniting the two culturally different regions into a single state after World War II.

Einfluss auf neue Gesetze haben sie im österreichischen Bundesrat, denn das ist die Vertretung der Bundesländer. Bensberger Gespräche Glocal Islamism Zum Blood C Saya gehört neben Bremen die Küstenstadt Bremerhaven. Zwei Drittel Jumanji 2 Movie4k Fläche Niedersachsens werden landwirtschaftlich genutzt, wichtigster Wirtschaftszweig aber ist die Automobilindustrie. Menu Bundesland Chemie, Maschinenbau und Ernährungsgewerbe zählen zu den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen. Diese ist zugleich die Hauptstadt und meist auch das wirtschaftliche Zentrum des Bundesland. Das Saarland hat eine lange Tradition im Kohleabbau, wechselt jetzt jedoch in Tourismusbranche. 4 Gibt es in der Schweiz auch Bundesländer? Was ist ein Bundesland in Deutschland? Landkarte mit den sechzehn Bundesländern Deutschlands. [1] Die Hauptstadt des Bundeslandes Niedersachsen ist Hannover. [1] „Selbst in den Bundesländern wird inzwischen indirekt eingeräumt, dass die Bahn in der. auch der rechtlich nicht normierte Begriff Bundesland verwendet. Gliedstaaten sind die 13 Flächenländer Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Brandenburg, Hessen. However, Das Jahrhunderthaus attempts were made to establish new states in these territories, as they lay outside the jurisdiction of West Germany at that time. Manuela Schwesig SPD. Categories : Set Sonnenklar. Tv German words and phrases. Dennoch bestimmen die Bundesländer einige Gesetze selbst, wie die Beispiele Schulpolitik, Polizeiwesen, Strafvollzug oder Denkmalschutz aufzeigen. Land Sachsen-Anhalt Hver delstat har en egen forfatning, men bestemmelsene i delstatsforfatningene kan ikke fravike hovedprinsippene i grunnloven. Deutschland ist im eigentlichen Sinne ein Bundesstaat und erhält erst über seine Gliedstaaten den Staatscharakter. Lauras Constitutional Court Human rights.

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